当我们接近新的一年的开始时,许多人将进入2014年,他们打算解决长期决议清单。Yet even though we all believe that our own goals are particularly important and meaningful, some of these resolutions will be better than others. In fact, psychological research on goals can clue us in to which resolutions will be more likely to end in success, and which will probably end up flopping before the snow even melts.

设置聪明的目标

一个突出的目标理论表明,您的目标可能位于其中有两种可能的频谱。

首先,你可以“轻松”,或者你可以“困难”。For example, if you were thinking about setting goals to help you amp up your fitness, a goal on the "easy" end of the spectrum might involve walking once a week or taking the stairs instead of the elevator. A more "difficult" goal might involve training for a marathon or committing yourself to daily workouts.

其次,你可以“模糊”或“具体”。继续健康的例子中,一个“特定的”goal would involve clear guidelines for what you want to accomplish (e.g. "Lose 5 pounds in 1 month" or "Run 1 mile in under 10 minutes"). A "vague" goal involves general exhortations to "try your hardest" or "get in shape," with no straightforward way of figuring out whether or not you've actually accomplished your goal; you can easily look at a scale or a stopwatch to figure out if you've lost 5 pounds or run a 9:59 mile, but there's no clear way of really knowing if you've actually "done your best" or successfully "gotten in shape."

根据研究人员洛克和莱瑟姆,您可以设置的最激励目标是困难和具体; these goals tend to be more effective than goals that are too easy or too vague. Some proponents have even used the acronym '聪明的“为了表明这一理论对最佳目标设置说明:

S.M., 和T.letters are all essentially saying the same thing: It's best to have goals that have specific definitions, for which you can measure your progress, with a clear timeline for goal enactment. For example, "Lose 5 pounds in 1 month" is more likely to successfully motivate you than "Get in shape" (LessS.pecific),“减肥”(少可衡量的)或“失去5磅”(不是T.ime-bound)。同样,“这个学期获得4.0个”自然会比“在学校做好”或“获得良好等级”的动机。

一种andR.字母参考另一个重要规定:Challenging goals are ideal, but they still need to be实际的太容易变得无聊的目标并将失去你的兴趣和随着时间的推移;然而,他们是如此困难的目标是无法实现的。因此,如果你生命中从未在过全面的英里,那么训练比一个完整的马拉松比赛更好。同样,如果数学不是你的强大诉讼,你可能不想在微积分中赚取A +的景点。每次考试的80%或更高的目标仍然具有挑战性,但可能更加现实和可达到。

If you're still trying to formulate your resolutions for 2014, make sure you focus your sights on难以达到,具体,andmeasurable目标。而不是“生活在此时”,尝试每周三次练习正常。“而不是“减肥”,试着“每天下班后去健身房”或“与朋友的10次比赛训练”。你可能会发现你今年比往常成功!


Locke,E.,&Latham,G.(2002)。建立一个实际上有用的目标设定理论和任务动机:35年的奥德赛。一种merican Psychologist, 57(9),705-717 DOI:10.1037 //0003-066x.57.9.705

Locke,E.,&Latham,G.(2006)。目标设定理论中的新方向。心理科学的当前方向,15(5),265-268 DOI:10.1111 / J.1467-8721.2006.00449.x

决议列表通过公共领域的图像通过Wikimedia Commons.,由用户Dipankan001提交。

这件作品最初发布在我的旧Psysociety WordPress Blog 2013年1月1日。您可以通过单击左侧的归档图标来查看原始帖子。